Table of Contents:
Key Features of React:
- Virtual DOM: The virtual DOM in React is an in-memory representation of the real DOM. React creates a virtual DOM, compares it with the previous virtual DOM, and only updates the parts of the real DOM that have actually changed. Therefore, it only updates what is necessary rather than re-rendering the entire DOM making React very efficient.
- Reusable components: React promotes the idea of components where the app is divided into independent, reusable pieces. They can be changed and used throughout the application like building blocks, which makes the development rapid and efficient.
Business case: META
Since META created React, it should be a perfect example of using all its capabilities.
React’s simple and declarative syntax, along with its reusable component model, helps Meta manage the massive scale and complexity of web versions of platforms like Instagram and Facebook in a resource-efficient way without negatively impacting the user experience.
META takes maximum possibilities from the React ecosystem, involving the usage of OculusVS for Virtual Reality, React Router, and many testing frameworks. Due to challenges posed by large amounts of data, META uses Redux for more efficient data management.
For mobile applications, META uses React Native, which we talk about in more detail below.
React is rarely stand-alone technology. There is always a whole ecosystem of libraries, tools, and frameworks to help you take the most out of its functionality.
Key Features of Node.js:
- Event-driven: Node’s event-driven model implies it can handle and scale to thousands of concurrent connections using just one thread, reusing that thread through events and callbacks.
- Non-blocking I/O: All Input/Output operations are performed asynchronously, which results in high performance, scalability, and efficiency in terms of system resources.
Among the companies that use Node.js (mostly combined with React) are Yahoo!, Walmart, NASA, eBay, Microsoft, and many others. For example, PayPal was initially written with Java, but after testing outstanding Node.js capabilities, they added Node.js to the permanent tech stack.
How PayPal Benefits From Node.js:
PayPal reported that the new application was built almost twice as fast with fewer people. However, Node.js benefited not only in development. Now PayPal can handle double the requests per second that it used to, and the average response time for the same page decreased by 35%. Users can load the pages 200ms faster, which is quite noticeable.
Vue.js is an approachable, performant, and versatile framework for building web user interfaces. Vue.js and React are often confused, but there are a few characteristics that make Vue.js popular:
- Lightweight: Vue.js has a tiny footprint of around 20kB minified and gzipped, much smaller than React or Angular, and consequently uploads much faster.
- Built-in features: Vue.js comes with many built-in features out of the box, like conditional rendering, routing, animations, filters, testing tools, and much more. Unfortunately, most frameworks require manual adding of those. Fortunately, there is Vue.js with a complete pack.
Zoom, Alibaba Group, GitLab, UpWork, Behance, and many others chose Vue.js as a solid base for their User Interfaces. For example, the most popular and world-known text editor Grammarly is quite an illustrative example.
Business case: Grammarly
Vue.js has been a valuable tool for Grammarly in improving its user experience. The framework is lightweight, performant, and customizable, allowing Grammarly to create a unique and engaging user experience.
For example, Vue.js allows Grammarly to use dynamic components to render different parts of the user interface based on the user’s input. As a result, the user experience is more personalized and efficient.
Nuxt.js is a framework based on Vue.js designed to simplify creating universal Vue.js applications by taking over the configuration burden, including repetitive tasks like routing, data pre-fetching, asset bundling, and more. It is possible thanks to some Next.js features.
Key Next.js Features:
Hybrid rendering: Nuxt.js supports hybrid rendering, allowing developers to choose between server-side rendering (SSR) and static site generation (SSG) on a per-route basis. This provides flexibility in handling different use cases and caching strategies.
Automatic code splitting: Nuxt.js automatically splits the code into chunks loaded on demand, reducing the initial load time even on websites with much dynamic content.
Routing: Nuxt.js provides a powerful routing system that allows you to easily create and manage multiple routes in your application on both the client and server.
Due to all the benefits of using Nuxt.js, many world-famous companies use this technology to develop their websites, internal tools, and dashboards. Here are some examples.
How UpWork Benefits From Using Nuxt.js:
With Nuxt.js, Upwork has the flexibility of a Vue-based framework and can create high-quality, performant web tools quickly and easily.
For instance, Upwork’s main website has many pages of content, but thanks to efficient code splitting, all data is returned quickly; meanwhile, server-side rendering enhances SEO, so all the content is discoverable in search engines.
Also, Upwork’s job posting builder tool and some internal tools are built with Nuxt.js. Due to integrating Nuxt’s API and module system, the job posting tool can integrate directly with Upwork’s services to store and retrieve job data. Meanwhile, Next’s universal capabilities enable the tool to run both client-side for user input/editing and server-side for data fetching, validation, and storage.
Not only UpWork benefits from using Nuxt js, but also OpenAI, NBA Rakuten, TikTok for Business, and many others.
Next.js and Nuxt.js are similar in that they are both frameworks for building universal applications. However, there is a principal difference: Next.js is built for React, while Nuxt.js is built for Vue.js. Among many familiar with Nuxt.js, some make Next.js stand out.
Features of Next.js:
- Server-side rendering: Nuxt.js can pre-render Vue pages into HTML on the server and serve the markup to the browser to improve SEO and performance.
- File-based routing: This approach to routing simplifies the project structure and makes navigation more intuitive for developers, facilitating development and time-to-market in general.
These features help optimize React’s applications, and since React is the most popular JS technology, Next.js’ popularity is likely to continue growing. TikTok, Twitch, Hulu, Notion, and HBO Max are on the extended list of world-famous companies that trust React and Next.js.
Business case: Netflix Jobs
Netflix Jobs is a global job search engine with implemented application forms, job lists, dynamic application status bars, and many other functions that involve manipulating a tremendous amount of data. Those factors and the initial usage of React led to choosing Next.js as additional technology to maintain complex functionality and efficient performance.
For example, Next.js’ incremental static regeneration (ISR) feature keeps dynamic data, such as new job listings, up to date without sacrificing the benefits of static site generation. Such global job portal as Netflix Jobs highly benefits from the usage of Next.js and gets smooth navigation, efficient loading, and multilingual support.
Express.js is a minimalist web framework for Node.js. It is named “minimalist” because of its lightweight. Express.js has a small codebase focused only on essential features and does not require many dependencies. It does not obstruct the work of node.js or copy its features but embraces Node.js and uses its core modules whenever possible.
Fundamental principles of Express.js:
- Dedication to the UNIX philosophy: Moto “do one thing and do it well” made Express.js entirely focused on providing the basics for web application frameworks – only the necessary routing, middleware, and view rendering features required for web applications, avoiding unnecessary code and complexity – and does not try to be a full-stack framework.
- Middleware: Most additional functionality is added via middleware plugins rather than bundling everything into the Express.js core, keeping it small and focused.
- Enhancing the Nodejs: Express.js helps Node reach its full potential as a platform for building efficient and customizable web applications embracing Node’s event-driven architecture and non-blocking I/O model to maximize performance.
- Flexibility: Express gets out of developers’ way, allowing them to structure their applications as needed.
All that encouraged IBM, Myntra, Fox Sports, Kuali, Wormhole, and many other companies of various purposes to add Express.js into their tech stack.
How Uber Benefits From Using Express.js:
Uber has a massive traffic load, with millions of rides requested daily. Express provides a performant and scalable foundation for building applications that can handle that level of traffic.
Also, since Express.js is lightweight and modular, Uber can scale easily and record time by building up additional components. Uber requires a wide range of functionality beyond the basics that Express provides. The large Express ecosystem provides Uber with a wide range of functionality and middleware for things like authentication, caching, logging, and more that facilitates extensibility even more.
Finally, Uber strives to keep up with all emerging trends, so flexibility and freedom to configure and build their application in the way that best suits their business needs and the fast that Uber already uses Node.js made Express a natural fit that integrates seamlessly.
Despite the minimalistic approach, Express.js is proven to be the perfect accelerator for Node.js.
React Native is a JS framework created based on React exclusively for mobile app development.
React Native is on top among mobile app development technologies because of the possibility of creating native fully-featured mobile applications for both iOS and Android using one codebase. The app looks and feels native but is available across platforms without compromising functionality, appearance, or performance.
Popular companies like Facebook, Instagram, Walmart, Airbnb, and others use React Native to build high-quality native mobile apps.
How and Why Does Discord Use React Native?
Discord is a free voice, video, and text chat app primarily used by gamers to communicate while playing games together as well as by a wide range of communities, including those for education, fandoms, hobbies, and work.
Thanks to React Native capabilities, Discord has gained some valuable features and immense popularity.
- Cross-platform: The main Discord app for iOS and Android is built entirely and solely with React Native.
- Native Performance: Since Discord is designed for real-life communication, React Native guarantees native-like performance despite using web technologies.
- Native Modules: The app has native modules to interface where needed to provide access to platform-specific capabilities.
- Animation: React Native’s animation library helps to create smooth, lifelike animations for actions like scrolling, hiding elements, and others.
- NO Excessive Code: Since Svelte is a compiler, it eliminates “dead” code, which is not involved in any piece of functionality, optimizing the application and reducing bundle size.
- NO Virtual DOM: Since Svelte compiles your code, it can apply changes directly to the DOM. Avoiding the stage of using Virtual DOM, Svelte applications are much faster, less memory-consuming, and the most lightweight possible.
- Reactive Declarative Approach: Reactive approach compensates for the absence of Virtual DOM. As a result, UI will be automatically updated in only the parts that need updating when your data changes.
Business case: Web Version of Apple Music
Apple started adopting Svelte in 2019, and is now included in the tech stack of the web version of Apple Music. Svelte promises several benefits that align well with the needs of a large-scale and complex web application.
Also, the web version of Apple Music is complex as it consists of multiple content-saturated pages, music features, UI interactions, animations, and personalization. Svelte reactive declarations and component model give Apple a more scalable way to manage this complexity than traditional templates.
Some reputable companies already adopt Svelte, and it is gaining popularity among developers. The usage of Svelte has grown by 150% over the last two years and even managed to become the most loved framework, according to a Stack Overflow survey.
Astro is an all-in-one web framework designed to create fast websites with lots of content. These include most marketing and publishing sites, blogs, or e-commerce sites.
The popularity of Astro is rapidly increasing, and the trend will not change. It is caused by the lightning-fast performance of websites that Astro provides.
Core Features of Astro:
- Server-first API: When a user first requests your Astro website, the HTML is generated on the server. Rather than simply displaying static HTML, the server can also retrieve dynamic data by requesting an API. This data is incorporated into the HTML before sending the page to the user. This feature guarantees your website to be the fastest possible, even faster than Next.js.
- UI-agnostic: Astro officially supports React, Preact, Solid, Svelte, Vue, and Lit. Code written by different frameworks can peacefully coexist on the same page, and developers can choose the best option.
There are a few big content-driven websites that use Astro. For example, Vercel, Contenda, Amelite, ButterCMS, and even the website devoted to the Day of the Dead.
Nest.js is a Node.js framework based on Express.js for building efficient, scalable Node.js server-side applications and uses TypeScript as its primary language. Although Nest.js is built on Express.js, they are not interchangeable and are preferable for different purposes.
Express.js is a minimal and flexible Node.js web application framework, while Nest.js is a full-featured, opinionated framework with some additional features that should be added to Express.js manually.
Advanced Features of Nest.js:
- Pipes: Pipes are built-in features designed to transform and validate input data at any application layer. Owing to them, Nest.js can enforce data consistency and efficiently eliminate invalid data.
- Dependency injection: Nest.js uses a dependency injection container to manage dependencies between classes, decouple them and make them more testable and reusable.
- Intuitive CLI: Command line interface is responsible for the rapid bootstrapping of new modules, controllers, services, running tests, building and starting applications, and many other functions that facilitate development.
Business Case: Adidas
Adidas is a full-fetched e-commerce web application, so it has to face challenges in developing and maintaining similar websites.
First, Adidas is a large and complex web application with an extensive database that needs constant updates and a set of interactive functions. Minimalistic Express.js is unsuitable, and Node.js is incapable of coping solely; therefore, Nest.js, with its broader built-in functionality, is a perfect solution.
Nest.js pipes became a clincher to add this technology to the stack to handle all the data-related operations. Input data validation is responsible for user verification, registration, and authorization, while built-in security features protect all information. Nest.js also enables integration and efficient usage of payment systems, which every e-commerce application needs.
Nest is not the most popular framework, but it is gaining momentum and attracting more and more companies and sponsors.
The powerful combo of React and Node.js has been on top for years, and their popularity continues to grow. Time flies, and new technologies emerge to help React and Node.js perform even better. For example, Next.js for React and Express.js for Node.js. Meanwhile, such more lightweight alternatives as Vue.js combined with Nust.js have captivated the attention of developers.
Svelte, Astro, and Nest.js are relatively new, but according to the trends, soon-to-be the most popular. Young, fast, and lightweight, they take a massive bite out of the market, where old technologies used to have no competitors.
The list above is changing over time. It might not be easy to figure everything out and choose suitable options for your application. Here in Lengin, we have many successful portfolio cases that will help you to see our work and JS technologies first-hand. Do not hesitate to contact us!